Knee, Ankle, and Foot

The decrease extremity has a major impact to your ability to movement within your world. A series of fascinating links (hip, knee and ankle joints) work cooperatively in dynamic and static states. This potential affords us the different to proficiently movement, mark and pursue our passion in existence. An working out of these articulations, muscle […]

Knee, Ankle, and Foot

The decrease extremity has a major impact to your ability to movement within your world. A series of fascinating links (hip, knee and ankle joints) work cooperatively in dynamic and static states. This potential affords us the different to proficiently movement, mark and pursue our passion in existence. An working out of these articulations, muscle groups, joints and their biomechanics might maybe well maybe aloof help in sustaining our quest to discontinuance wholesome and energetic!

If truth be told fair accurate sensory receptors in the physique (muscle groups, tendons ligaments and joints) enjoy a proprioceptive blueprint, that technique they relay positional or spatial awareness to your brain in mutter to defend accurate balance. This is performed by a fixed movement of recordsdata flowing from our physique into our spine and up into our brain. Neuropathways, or somatic sensory circuits, secure a diagram of self as we movement our physique parts by space and time.


The knee joint is basically the most involving, most complex joint in the physique designed for balance. It is miles a modified “hinge” joint that flexes and extends with diminutive or no rotation or twisting. Balance is dependent on a complex community of thick, sturdy ligaments internal and outside of doorways the joint. Mobility must exist above and beneath the knee joint in the hip and ankle joint. If the hips are tight and stiff, the knee joint is weak to excessive movement that might maybe well secure save on and scoot. The patella (furthermore known because the knee cap) is basically the most involving “sesamoid” bone in the physique and glides between the 2 spherical surfaces on the femur bone with knee flexion / extension. On top of the tibia bone sits two shock-inspiring pads, called the menisci, which help to deepen the knee joint ground space in a resolve-eight-treasure pattern. This meniscus pattern shares connections with the cruciate ligaments and assists in guiding the puny quantity of rotation in the knee.

The foot and ankle are key focal parts of make stronger for entire physique weight forces. Daily we endure concentrated forces of stress by the ankle, which acts as a shock absorber and distributes those forces into the foot. The ankle joint includes two main hinge-form joints, the talocrural and subtalar joints. Whereas accurate and in gravity, these joints are continuously adapting to the lodging wanted to stand, stroll, jog or soar. The fibula and tibia bones from above, and the talus bone from beneath, mark the talocrural joint, which is a hinge joint. The talus and calcaneus elevate the subtalar joint. These complex movements in the human frame require intricate and delicate relationships governed by neuromuscular reflexes, equipped by our nerves, spinal cord, and brain.


Medial Collateral Ligament (MCL): A superficial, long and flat ligament between the medial epicondyle of the femur and the tibia (4 – 7 cm); stabilizes the internal of the knee joint; resists excessive external rotation and abduction.

Medial Capsular Ligament (MCL): Deep, thick, and attaches to the medial meniscus; shares fibers of the joint pill; resists inward or valgus stress and medial rotation; Stabilizes anterior-posterior movement assisting the anterior cruciate ligament.

Lateral Collateral Ligament (LCL): An spectacular cord-treasure ligament attaching from the lateral epicondyle of the femur to the pinnacle or excellent head of the fibula; would now not set to the meniscus; resists outward or external rotation of the femur on the tibia; no longer injured as noteworthy because the MCL consequently of its lack of meniscal attachment.

Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL): An spectacular intra-articular ligament that runs front-to-help (anterior to posterior); fibers are taut with straight leg; prevents the femur from fascinating backwards or posteriorly on the tibia.

Posterior Cruciate Ligament (PCL): An intra-articular ligament that attaches help-to-front (posterior to anterior); prevents forward movement of the tibia relative to the femur and internal rotation of the tibia

Patellar Ligament: General tendon of quadriceps muscle inserts on tibial tuberosity

Muscular tissues

Quadriceps: Basically the most involving muscle tissue in the physique: Rectus Femoris, Vastus Lateralis, Vastus Medialis, Vastus Intermedius. Its movement is extension of the knee, flexion of hip (Rectus Femoris only), and monitoring of Patella (Vastus Lateralis and Medialis)

Sartorius: A flexor and external rotator of hip joint and flexor of knee joint, and the longest muscle in the physique

Hamstrings: Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus & Biceps Femoris. Its movement is flexion of the knee, extension of hip, deceleration of leg, balance capabilities with knee extension

Popliteus: Small muscle that flexes the tibia and rotates it medially

Iliotibial (IT) Band: Tendinous extension of the tensor fasciae latae and gluteus maximus Gastrocnemius. The two heads (lateral and medial) insert above knee; frequent tendon (Achilles) insets on the calcaneus; influences knee flexion and ankle plantar flexion.

Vary of Circulation

Standing with each and every toes on the ground (Closed Kinetic Chain) with a straight or “locked knee” creates zero levels of flexion consequently of ligaments, meniscus and joint pill being tight and at maximum tension. Because the knee moves into flexion, the knee “unlocks” and the femoral head and lateral condyle externally rotate pretty of and the medial condyle glides or translates in the first 15-20 levels. Rotational movement is most involving between 45-90 of knee flexion. Knee flexion (120-150 levels) and extension or hyperextension (5-10 levels).


Medial Collateral or “Deltoid” Ligament: A thick, sturdy triangular ligament on the medial facet of ankle; from the medial malleolus above, it followers out and inserts on three ankle bones (navicular, calcaneus, talus)

Lateral collateral ligament: Three effective ligaments (calcaneofibular, anterior / posterior talofibular) and critically weaker than its medial counterpart; at possibility of ankle “inversion” sprains

Muscular tissues

Anterior Leg: Tibialis Anterior, Extensor Digitorium Longus, Extensor Hallucis Longus (Anterior Shin Splints)

Posterior Leg: Tibialis Posterior, Flexor Digitorum Longus, Flexor Hallucis Longus, (Posterior Shin Splints), Plantaris, Triceps Surae, Gastrocnemius (superficial and soleus / deep)

Lateral Leg: Peroneal Tertius, Peroneal Longus, Peroneal Brevis

Foot (Dorsal): Extensor Digitorum Brevis, Extensor Hallucis Brevis, Interossei

Foot (Plantar): Abductor Hallucis, Abductor Digiti Minimi, Flexor Digitorum Brevis, Quadratus Plantae, Lumbricles, Flexor Hallucis Brevis, Adductor Hallucis, Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis, Interossei

Vary of Circulation

Talocrural Joint: Dorsiflexion (20-30 levels); Plantarflexion (40-50 levels)

Subtalar Joint: Supination or Inversion (20 levels); Pronation or Eversion (10 levels)

Ankle & Foot Arches

The 3 arches in the foot secure make stronger with a suspension-treasure potential. The talus bone is regarded because the “keystone” of make stronger in the arch of the foot. It affords us recordsdata for our balance and posture. It lets in us to movement with precision and vitality when actions save a query to it. Strengthening the arches must happen over time and with working out of upright biomechanics. The 3 arches of the foot are: Medial Longitudinal Arch, Lateral Longitudinal Arch, Transverse Arch.

Squat Test

Affect a squat 5-6 times with accurate, accurate posture (looking simple, toes hip-width and parallel, the utilization of a postural grid in the background for reference. You might maybe well furthermore exhaust a video or image (front and lateral views) to set up for the structural dysfunctions that might maybe well maybe occur beneath.

  1. Knees movement inward of ankles. Appropriate or Left
  2. Within arch of foot collapses (pronation / Inversion) Appropriate or Left
  3. Foot rotates laterally: Appropriate or Left
  4. Backbone flexes forward / dowel angles forward. Extra than 30 levels? Y / N
  5. Pelvis shifts or translates: Appropriate or Left
  6. Heels resolve off ground: Yes / No
  7. Toes grip ground for balance: Yes / No

Key considerations while performing the squat:

  1. Knees might maybe well maybe aloof align vertically above ankles
  2. Within or medial arch might maybe well maybe aloof be maintained. If arch flattens or pronates, this can stretch the tender tissues (plantar fascia / aponeurosis), leading to plantar fascitis or achilles tendonitis
  3. Toes might maybe well maybe aloof discontinuance pointing simple and no longer flare out
  4. Dreadful flexibility by the ankle and hip joints creates imbalance posteriorly and the upper physique will counter-balance by leaning forward respectively.
  5. Asymmetry by stale injuries or uncomfortable postural habits over time causes the pelvis to shift laterally or facet-to-facet, compensating to defend balance
  6. Tight calf muscle groups restrict the ankle joint in dorsiflex (come accurate by # 4). When balance is compromised consequently of physique weight fascinating forward, intrinsic foot muscle groups want to work exhausting to withstand falling forward and dropping balance.